The fresh new gonostyli was showcased in the purple, and certainly will be explicitly present in recently mated queens

The fresh new gonostyli was showcased in the purple, and certainly will be explicitly present in recently mated queens

Ladies genitalia off M. fasciculata and you will methods to possess mating connect coupling. (A) Virgin females genitalia within the front check. (B) Men genitalia regarding pre-copula men, approaching the female genitalia. (C–E) Genital capsule, metasomal sterna S-VIII and you can S-IX. (F) Men genitalia creating the fresh new coupling of connect: ventral look at vaginal supplement and you can metasomal sternum S-IX projecting outside of the body of men of the good telescopic path. (G) Men vaginal medicine isolated out of male’s human body, having cock regulators brought about, gonostyli facing the opposite position with regards to the initial. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and S-IX, in which sternum S-IX takes on their modern standing in male’s abdomen. (I) Mating connect in detail, exhibiting new lateral compressing off gonocoxites. (J) Brand new genital chamber out of a good connected ladies: the membranous part that has the latest mating connect attached.

In the low-Melipona species (F

longipes, S. aff. Postica, and you can P. minima), i observed powerful penis valves with mediator curve and you may a lesser spatha ( Profile step 1)paring the overall morphology from manhood valves and you can spatha out of Yards. fasciculata to another learnt species, we found that each other M. flavolineata and you can Yards. seminigra has actually thin dick regulators with lowest curve. not, Yards. seminigra has faster valves than just M. flavolineata, and you will a more successful spatha when compared to one other Melipona ( Shape 1).

Description of hypothesized plugging actions

The last status away from mating plugs into the mated women paired the fresh new status of the male’s instinct throughout copulation because of “J” direction and location not as much as female’s instinct ( Contour 4C). In every physogastric queens out of M. fasciculata, i seen this new mating connect connected to the membranous vaginal pouches because of the cock valves, to your spatha body established towards the the female ventral part, placed under this new gonopore ( Profile 3J). We propose that brand new mating plug system is triggered in the event the men vaginal capsule is irreversibly protruded out of male’s body, which leads to modified positions of the gonostyli, cock valves, and you can gonocoxites.

The latest mating set of Meters. fasciculata, centered on videos checklist away from mating of a connected types. From top to bottom: (A) male in flight, looking to position by itself along the ladies; (B) organized men, exhibiting sets out-of legs suitable across the woman’s human anatomy; (C) male improving the abdomen of your girls; (D) male leaving the feminine immediately following effective mating, which is, the fresh new mating plug accessory. In most parts, male wings was depicted so you can represent its course throughout the mating, centered on Second Videos S1 .

The mating group of Meters. fasciculata, centered on videos number of mating from a related types. From top to bottom: (A) men in-flight, seeking condition alone across the females; (B) arranged male, proving pairs out-of foot fitting along the woman’s looks; (C) men raising the instinct of one’s female; (D) male making the feminine shortly after winning mating, that is, the new mating connect connection. In every pieces, male wings is portrayed to show the path during mating, considering Supplementary Clips S1 .

In accordance with the evaluation between asleep state out of genital tablets and you can brought about condition out-of mating plugs, its practical morphology, and also in films details on mating decisions off a closely associated types ( Second Clips S1 ), we advise that creating out of mating plug takes place in 5 hypothetical methods ( Rates step three and cuatro):

Immediately after immobilizing the female human body, a man inserts their metasomal sternum S-VIII beneath the lady tergum T-VI, lifting it ( Shape 4C).

Because the ladies vaginal chamber was opened ( Contour 3A), the male gonostyli joins the latest woman’s genital area. Immediately following location the brand new sternum S-VIII, the male metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes out of the male’s looks on the the female’s genital chamber and the vaginal supplement, by the a telescopic way ( Contour 3F). The new insertion out of male genital supplement toward girls vaginal chamber isn’t with the fresh new gonostyli, and therefore flow backwards for the techniques, leftover outside the lady genital chamber ( Shape 3G).

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